Radegund – c.520 – 587 – Poitiers, France

France, Germany

Radegund

Radegund (also Rhadegund, Radegonde or Radigund) was a German princess and a Frankish queen who founded the Abbey of the Holy Cross at Poitiers. She was also the granddaughter of Basina through her father.

At the time Radegund was born, the kingdom of Thuringia was ruled by three men; her father Bertachar and his brothers, Baderic and Hermanfrid.

In 529, Hermanfrid killed Bertachar in battle, leaving nine-year-old Radegund an orphan. She was taken into Hermanfrid’s household while he continued his campaign for sole kingship, killing Baderic shortly afterwards.

Hermanfrid’s victory had come at a cost – he had sought the help of Theuderic, king of the Franks, agreeing that they would share sovereignty of Thuringia. However, you can’t trust a man who will kills his own brothers in the pursuit of power, and Hermanfrid did not make good on his promise.

Furious at the betrayal, Theuderic and his own brother, Clotaire I marched into Thuringia in 531, defeating Hermanfrid and claiming his kingdom. When the victorious brothers returned to Gaul (France), they took twelve-year-old Radegund with them.

She was raised in Clotaire’s villa in Picardy, and in 540 Radegund became one of his six wives. Little is known about her life as Clotaire’s concubine, other than that they had no children.

In 550, Radegund’s family was in peril again when Clotaire had her brother, the last surviving male, murdered. With her own life potentially in danger, Radegund left the Frankish court and sought shelter within the church. She pleaded her case to the Bishop of Noyon, who agreed to make her a deaconess.

800px-Radegonde_se_retire_dans_le_monastère_dédié_à_la_Vierge

Radegund retiring to the monastery (source)

While living in the Frankish court Radegund had been noted for her charitable giving, but once she joined the church she really came into her own, founding the monastery of Cainte-Croix in Poitiers.

As a deaconess, Radegund’s life was governed by a very strict set of instructions, known as the Rule for Virgins. This required nuns to live cloistered lives, away from the public. They were expected to devote much of their time to reading the Bible and copying out manuscripts, and had a restrictive vegetarian diet of legumes and green vegetables.

As well as founding the monastery, Radegund personally tended to the sick, gaining a reputation as a gifted healer. In addition, Radegund wrote poetry (likely with a religious theme) which has sadly been lost.

800px-Poitiers_-_Eglise_Sainte-Radegonde_1

Radegund retiring to the monastery (source)

Through her writing, Radegund corresponded with a number of very learned men of her generation, including Gregory of Tours, who attended her funeral, and the hermit Junian of Mairé, who was said to have died on the same day as Radegund.

Radegund died in 587 in her late seventies, and was buried in Poitiers in a church which later became the Church of St Radegonde. Due to the strict Rule for Virgins the nuns of Radegund’s abbey were not permitted to attend the funeral.

Radegund is venerated as a saint in the catholic church, her feast day is celebrated on 13th August each year. She is also the patron saint of Cambridge University’s Jesus College. A number of churches and building across Britain and France are named in Radegund’s honour.


References:

Information on St Radegund – Jesus College Cambridge

St. Radegund from Sainted Women of the Dark Ages.-  Jo Ann McNamara, John E. Halborg, with E. Gordon Whatley

On Wikipedia:

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Aedesia – 5th Century – Alexandria, Egypt

Ancient Greece, Greece

Aedesia

Aedesia was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher who lived in Egypt during the 5th century.

She was related to Syrianus, the head of the Neoplatonist school in Athens (alongside Asclepigenia), and apparently spent much of her life around scholars and great thinkers. She was even briefly engaged to one of his students, Proclus.

Aedesia married Hermias, also a student of Syranius, and had two sons with him, Ammonius and Heliodorus. When Hermias died she received a small state allowance which enabled her to devote herself to educating her children.

When her sons were old enough to study philosophy, Aedesia took them to Athens where she reconnected with Proclus. She was very popular among the philosophers of Athens who praised her virtue and dedication to educating her children.

Aedesia reportedly lived well into old age, though there is very little information on how she spent the rest of her life.


References:

On Wikipedia:

Asclepigenia – fl.430 – Athens, Greece

Greece

Asclepigenia

Asclepigenia was the daughter of a philosopher called Plutarch, who headed the Neoplatonist school in Athens. He educated his daughter (and her brother, Hierius) in philosophy and mysticism. In time, (much like Hypatia in Alexandria) she too became a teacher.

Asclepigenia and her father followed a syncretic system which united traditional Platonic and Aristotelian philosophies with pagan ritual and magic.

When Plutarch died in 430, he passed the school onto his daughter. She taught metaphysics, cosmology and theology, all of which attempted to understand and predict the will of fate (or the gods) and influence the outcomes.

Asclepigenia is known to us largely because she taught the philosopher Proclus, and almost all of the information we have on her comes from The Life of Proclus by Marinus.


References:

Ancient Women Philosophers: 600 B.C.-500 A. D.M.E. Waithe

On Wikipedia:

 

Hypatia – c.351/370 – 415 – Alexandria, Egypt

Ancient Egypt

Hypatia

In the centuries since her death, Hypatia has become an icon for women in education and scientific thought. Her story has been told and retold, casting her as a pagan seductress, a prim school ma’am, an enlightened philosopher and a tragic heroine. Her brutal and untimely death is often told in gory detail without recounting the facts of her life.

This is largely because (as with so many women in this era) little is known about the life of Hypatia which can be confirmed. We know that she was a highly intelligent woman with a first class classical Greek education. She lived in Alexandria, Egypt, and headed the Neoplatonic School there, teaching philosophy and astronomy. Most remarkably of all, Hypatia was a woman in charge of her own life and who made her own choices.

A gifted mathematician, she inherited her passion for the subject from her father, Theon Alexandricus. Following her education in Athens, she relocated to Alexandria, at the time the home of the world’s largest and most comprehensive library. She taught Greek philosophy, including the works of Plato and Aristotle to students from all walks of life.

Hypatia occupied a respected position in Alexandrian society. Most sources report that she was well respected and admired for her wisdom and dignity. She refused to marry, though there are stories in which she turns down proposals from her enamoured students. Hypatia’s single status and dedication to her career enabled her to move more freely through male dominated environments than other women at the time.

Socrates Scholasticus, a contemporary of Hypatia’s, describes her self-assured nature and how her advice was well regarded and sought after by the leading minds of Alexandria:

“On account of the self-possession and ease of manner which she had acquired in consequence of the cultivation of her mind, she not infrequently appeared in public in the presence of the magistrates. Neither did she feel abashed in going to an assembly of men. For all men on account of her extraordinary dignity and virtue admired her the more.”

Though no surviving work is attributed to Hypatia, classical scholars make mentions of a number of texts and commentaries which she may have collaborated on with her father.

Mort_de_la_philosophe_Hypatie

“Death of the philosopher Hypatia, in Alexandria” (Source)

Hypatia’s murder took place in 415 in Alexandria. At the time there was an ongoing feud between the Roman Prefect of Alexandria, Orestes, and the Bishop of Alexandria, Cyril. Cyril had demanded that all of the Jewish citizens of Alexandria be banished. Alexandria was a city of multiple faiths at the time – Hypatia’s students included pagans, Jews and Christians – and Orestes was outraged by Cyril’s violent actions.

As previously mentioned, Hypatia was often asked for advice by prominent citizens of the city, and in this case Orestes asked for her input. Unfortunately, by this point the feud would not be solved with reason or debate, and Cyril’s followers felt that Hypatia was siding against them. A mob attacked her and dragged her through the streets to their church, where they brutally killed and mutilated her.


In Fiction:

Literature and theatre:

  • Hypatie et Cyril is a French poem by Charles Marie Rene Leconte de Lisle

    Hypatia_(1900_Play)

    An actress, possibly Mary Anderson, in the title role of the play Hypatia, circa 1900. (Source)

  • Hypatia – or New Foes with an Old Face – Charles Kingsley (novel)
  • In the 1893 performance of the play Hypatia by Stuart Ogilvie (based on Kingsley’s book) Hypatia was played by Julia Neilson, then by Mary Anderson in 1900.
  • The Heirs of Alexandria series by Mercedes Lackey, Eric Flint and Dave Freer portrays am alternate history in which Hypatia is converted to Christianity, saving her life.
  • Fable of Venice by Corto Maltese has Hypatia as an intellectual in pre-fascist Italy.
  • Ipazia, scienziata alessandrina(Hypatia: Scientist of Alexandria) by Adriano Petta
  • Hypatia y la eternidad(Hypatia and Eternity) by Ramon Galí is also set in an alternate history.
  • Azazil by Dr Youssel Ziedan
  • Francis Itty Cora by D. Ramakrishnan
  • Remembering Hypatia: A Novel of Ancient Egyptby Brian Trent
  • Flow Down Like Silver, Hypatia of Alexandriaby Ki Longfellow
  • In The Plot to Save Socratesby Paul Levinson and the sequel Unburning Alexandria, Hypatia turns out to have been a time-traveller from 21st century America.
  • Heresy: the Life of Pelagiusby David Lovejoy includes Hypatia’s death.

Film and Television:

  • 1987 Doctor Who serial Time and the Rani features a brief appearance from Hypatia.
  • Cosmos: A Personal Voyage (1980 and 2014).
  • Agora (2009) stars Rachel Weiss as Hypatia in a fictionalised version of her last years.

Art:

  • Hypatia has a place setting at Judy Chicago’s The Dinner Party.

Science:

  • 238 Hypatia is a main belt asteroid named after the philosopher.
  • Lunar crater Hypatia.
  • A genus of moth.

References:

Rejected Princesses: Hypatia

Women Philosophers in the Ancient Greek World: Donning the Mantle – Kathleen Wider

Medieval Sourcebook: The Murder of Hypatia (late 4th Cent.) from Ecclesiastical History,Bk VI: Chap. 15 – Socrates Scholasticus

On Wikipedia:

 

Paula – 347 – 404 – Rome/Bethlehem

Ancient Rome

“If all the members of my body were to be converted into tongues, and if each of my limbs were to be gifted with a human voice, I could still do no justice to the virtues of the holy and venerable Paula.” – Saint Jerome

Paula

One of the early ‘desert mothers’ – women who relocated to the holy land to work for the church – Paula of Rome was a key figure in the formation of Christianity.

She came from one of the most prestigious Roman families and inherited immense wealth. Married in her teens to a nobleman of equal standing, Paula had five children. As a young matron of Rome she enjoyed her privilege; Saint Jerome writes that she wore silk dresses and was carried about the city by eunuch slaves.

Paula’s husband died when she was only thirty-two, plunging her into grief.  Her mourning drove her desire to learn more about religion and eventually led her to the brown dress society, led by Marcella. Inspired by this monastic style of living, Paula became devoted to the church, giving away much of her material wealth.

When her family and friends complained that she was giving away her children’s inheritance, she simply dismissed them, claiming that she was exchanging their earthly inheritance for a heavenly one.

It was after she met Saint Jerome in 382 that Paula decided to make a pilgrimage to the holy land. Though she was doing good work in Rome, she was unhappy with the life she had because of her familial ties and social status and felt she would be free from these burdens in the desert.

Paula’s journey was an epic one by the standards of the time. Her children accompanied

800px-Francisco_de_Zurbarán_043

Saint Jerome with Saint Paula and Saint Eustochium by Francisco de Zurbaran (Source)

her as far as the Roman port of Portus at Ostia, and once she was on board the ship she refused to look back at them on the shore in case seeing them there drew her back.

Only her daughter Eustochium chose to make the journey with her. They stopped at the island of Pontia to visit the exiled martyr Flavia Domitilla, who further strengthened Paula’s resolve to reach Jerusalem.

Later she stopped at Cyprus to visit the bishop Epiphanius. Here she travelled to at every monastery on the island to leave behind a donation of money. Paula continued on her journey through to Seleucia, then Antioch, stopping at a number of holy places in modern day Syria, Lebanon and Israel to see the sights and worship, before eventually arriving in Bethlehem.

After seeing a number of important places from the bible, including the cave in which Jesus was said to have been born, Paula decided that she would stay in Bethlehem. Immediately she set to work building a monastery for monks and a convent for the women who joined her.

Bethlehem_Geburtskirche_3

The Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem (Source)

For the rest of her life, Paula dedicated herself tirelessly to working for the poor, the sick and pilgrims who passed through Bethlehem. She may have had some basic medical knowledge as she is described as tending to the sick personally.

She also assisted Jerome academically, helping his Bible translation into Latin and later (with her daughter Eustochium) making copies to circulate the gospel.

After Paula’s death, Eustochium continued running the convent she had left behind. Her final resting place is beneath the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, the spot thought to be Jesus’ birthplace.

Paula is honoured as a Saint in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox church and her feast day is celebrated on 26th January.


In fiction:

Geoffrey Chaucer played upon the relationship between Jerome and Paula in the Wife of Bath‘s Prologue.


References:

Jerome’s Letter 108

On Wikipedia:

Julia Domna – 170 – 217 – Rome

Ancient Rome

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Julia Domna (sometimes Julia Domma) had a very privileged start in life. Born into the wealthiest family in Syria, her father was a high-priest and her great-uncle had been a leading Roman Centurion – who left her his estate.

800px-Julia_Domna_Glyptothek_Munich_354Educated in politics and philosophy, Domna’s star continued to rise as she married the roman Septimius Severus in her late teens. By all accounts it was an extremely happy pairing, and Severus openly listened to his clever wife’s opinions and advice.

Domna had two sons, Caracall and Geta, and the family’s fortunes increased when Severus became emperor of Rome in 193. However, this position would come at a price as Severus faced civil war with a number of rivals.

As Severus marched out on military campaigns to the Eastern reaches of the empire, Julia Domna travelled at his side. This bought her a lot of respect among the common people and soldiers, and she was given the title Mater Castrorum – mother of the camp.

Back in Rome, Julia Domna flourished in the role of empress. She pursued her passion for philosophy and encouraged philosophers to share their knowledge. She commissioned Philostratus to write his Life of Apollonius, which is still considered the major source of information on Apollonius.

In 208 Severus and Julia left Rome again for Britain, where three years later Severus died in York. The emperor’s sons, Caracalla and Geta were left to rule jointly, with Julia as their mediator. Unfortunately, the two brothers did not get on, and within a year Caracalla had ordered his soldiers to murder Geta.

Julia was horrified by her son’s actions and their relationship never recovered. She continued to play the role of dutiful mother and was with Caracalla in Parthia when he was assassinated in 217.

Having lost her husband and both sons and suffering from breast cancer, Julia Domna chose to commit suicide. She was carried back to Rome and given an empress’s burial.


References:

Julia Domna: Syrian Empress – Barbara Levick

Matrona Docta: Educated Women in the Roman Élite from Cornelia to Julia DomnaEmily Ann Hemelrijk

On Wikipedia:


Image credits:

Julia Domna Glyptothek By Unknown – User:Bibi Saint-Pol, own work, 2007-02-08, Public Domain

The Severan Tondo By Fred the Oyster – Staatliche Museum zu Berlin, Public Domain

Coin featuring Julia Domna By Rasiel Suarez, CC BY-SA 3.0

Coins, Aureus with Septimius Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla and Geta By cgb – http://www.cgb.fr/septime-severe-julia-domna-caracalla-et-geta-aureus,brm_251139,a.html, CC BY-SA 3.0

 

 

Ban Zhao 班昭 – 45 – c.116 – Anling, China

Ancient China, China

Ban Zhou

Ban Zhao was the first known Chinese woman historian and China’s best known female scholar.

Born in Shaanxi province, Ban Zhao already had a strong female role model in the form of her great aunt, Consort Ban, who had famously saved herself from persecution by using her education and gift for reasoning. Zhao’s father, Ban Biao, and her brother, Ban Gu were also well known historians – so the importance of education was instilled from a young age.

Like many women of this era, Ban Zhao married very young, at fourteen. This meant that she was still young when her husband died, leaving her a widow with two children. Rather than re-marry, Ban Zhao chose to devote the rest of her life to scholarly pursuits.

800px-Ming_Dynasty_wood_carving_books_in_Tian_Yi_Chamber_colllection

The Book of Han

She loved history and poetry, but also took an interest in astronomy and mathematics. When her brother, Ban Gu, was executed for political reasons in 92, he left an unfinished book on the history of the Western Han, which Ban Zhao chose to complete. She finished the work, known as The Book of Han and added her own touches – a treatise on astronomy, as well as a genealogy of the emperor’s mother.

Ban Zhao’s next great work was Lessons for Women, a guide for women’s conduct heavily influenced by Confucian morality. While the book urged women to be obedient and subservient to their husbands and fathers, it also advocated education for women and was dedicated to the daughters of the Ban family. Lessons for Women remained popular in China for centuries.

The book quickly gained the attention of the Emperor, who requested that Ban Zhao be Banzhaoinstalled as the royal librarian, and that she teach his concubines and chief wife Empress Deng Sui – who was to become a lifelong friend.

Ban Zhao quickly became known as the gifted one by the women at court, and Deng Sui had such respect for her that she made her a Lady-in-waiting – a high status position.

Ban Zhao’s rise continued as her sons were given positions as court officials. Deng Sui often asked for Ban Zhou’s advice in political matters, particularly when the Empress became regent on behalf of her infant son.

It seems that Ban Zhou’s only aspiration for herself was scholarship. She threw herself into her role as a royal librarian, managing the library assistants who worked to copy out manuscripts onto bamboo, silk and paper (which was a recent invention). In addition, Ban Zhou worked on expanding and editing Biographies of Eminent Women by Liu Xiang.

Ban Zhao lived to a great age, dying around 116 CE. When the Empress Dowager Deng Sui heard about her friend’s death, she dressed all in white as a symbol of mourning.

After her death, Ban Zhao’s daughter-in-law, gathered her works in the three-volume Collected Works of Ban Zhao, most of which is unfortunately now lost.


 

In Science:

The Ban Zhao crater on Venus is named after her.


References:

http://worldhistoryconnected.press.illinois.edu/9.1/lee.html

Notable Women of China: Shang Dynasty to the Early Twentieth Century – Barbara Bennet Peterson

On Wikipedia:


Image credits:

Banzhao” by http://www.ancestryimages.com/proddetail.php?prod=g6393 – Mémoires concernant l’histoire, les sciences, les arts, les mœurs, les usages, etc., des Chinois, par les missionaires de Pé-kin.

Licensed under Public Domain via Commons

Ming Dynasty wood carving books in Tian Yi Chamber colllection” by Gisling – Own work.

Licensed under CC BY 3.0 via Commons

 

 

Pompeia Plotina – d.121/122 – Rome

Ancient Rome

PompeiaPlotina

Pompeia Plotina Claudia Phoebe Piso – or just Pompeia Plotina for short – was an influential and intellectual Roman Empress.

Raised in Escacena del Campo in the romanised Hispania province, Plotina was the daughter of Lucius Pompeius Plotia, a politician. In around 91 she married Trajan, a soldier who had recently been elected a roman Consul.

Plotina_-_sestertius_-_RIC_0740

The couple never had any children of their own, but were adoptive parents to the future emperor Hadrian and his sister, who had become orphaned at a young age. Trajan became emperor in 98, and in 100 he gave his wife the title of Augusta (Empress), which she did not accept until five years later.

Plotina was well read, and took a deep interest in philosophy – particularlyBust_of_Pompeia_Plotina,_from_the_Baths_of_Nepture_at_Ostia,_110-120_AD,_Palazzo_Massimo_alle_Terme,_Rome_(12453374733) the Epicurean school, which promoted modesty and moderation as well as gaining knowledge of the world. The empress and her husband became known for their simplicity, their philanthropy and their kindness.

Rather than concerning herself with increasing her power as so many empresses before her, Plotina used her influence to help others. She worked for fairer taxation, better access to education and poverty relief. She became beloved by Roman society and Trajan became known as one of the ‘five good emperors’.

When Plotina died, she was deified (made a goddess) and Hadrian built a temple in her honour at Nîmes, in Provence.


References:

A to Z of Ancient Greek and Roman Women – Marjorie Lightman, Benjamin Lightman

The Women of Pliny’s Letters – Jo-Ann Shelton

Women in Ancient Rome: A Sourcebook – Bonnie MacLachlan

On Wikipedia:


Image credits:

Plotina – sestertius – RIC 0740” by Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. http://www.cngcoins.com.

Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons

Bust of Pompeia Plotina, from the Baths of Nepture at Ostia, 110-120 AD, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome (12453374733)” by Carole Raddato from FRANKFURT, Germany – Bust of Pompeia Plotina, from the Baths of Nepture at Ostia, 110-120 AD, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome.

Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

Pamphile – 1st Century – Epidaurus, Greece

Ancient Greece

Pamphile

Pamphile (or Pamphila) of Epidaurus was a historian during the first century.

Her family was probably Egyptian in origin, though she was brought up in Epidaurus, Greece. She married a man called Sorteridas who was very cultured and filled their home with interesting and intelligent visitors.

Pamphile was inspired by the many interesting people she met and the fascinating stories they had to share, so she began to write everything down. According to Photius, Pamphile wrote down everything she heard from the conversations taking place in her home, as well as things she learnt for herself in private study.

First page of an early print edition of the Suda

First page of an early print edition of the Suda

Her main work was known was the Historical Commentaries, which comprised of 33 books telling the history of Greece. The most interesting aspect of Pamphile’s work is the way she presented her histories. Rather than arranging the information by order of subject or chronology, Pamphile laid down each anecdote or fact just as she had heard it, or as it had come to her attention.

This was deliberate, as she felt that the variety of information would make the work more enjoyable to read.

Pamphile’s Historical Commentaries was a much admired text, praised not only by Photius, but historians Aulus Gellius and Diogenes Laërtius. The Suda describes Pamphile as a ‘wise woman’ and notes that she authored further texts On DisputesOn Sex and many others.


 

Notes:

The Suda is a huge 10th century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world. It contains 30,000 entries, many drawing from ancient sources that have since been lost, and often derived from medieval Christian compilers.


 

References:

Suda Online: http://www.stoa.org/sol-bin/search.pl

Bibliotheca Cod. 175 – Photius

On Wikipedia:


 

Image credits:

Suda“. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons

Consort Ban (班婕妤) – c. 48 BCE – 6 BCE – Chang’an, China

Ancient China, China

BanJieyu

Consort Ban (also known as Ban Jieyu 婕妤 or Lady Ban) was the title of a woman who was a third-ranking wife to Emperor Chengdi in Han Dynasty China. We do not know her personal name.

She began palace life as a junior maid (similar to the later European position of lady-in-waiting), and became a concubine to the emperor, a more prominent position.

Consort Ban was admired as a great scholar who was able to recite beautifully from the Shi Jing (the Chinese classic poetry). She was also very demure, and famously refused to ride in a palanquin (a covered litter) with Chengdi as she did not want to distract him from matters of state.

Consort_Ban_and_Emperor_Cheng,_Northern_Wei_painted_screen

Consort Ban declining to ride with Emperor Cheng on his palanquin. The painting is from the bottom panel of a Northern Wei screen.

However, her poetry and modesty were not enough to secure her position with the emperor. Though she bore him two sons, both of them died shortly after birth. As the Empress Xu, Chendi’s first wife, had not produced an heir either, his mother the Empress Dowager Wang Zhengjun asked him to take more concubines.

In around 19 BCE, the Emperor was visiting Princess Yang’a when he first saw her dancing girls, sisters Zhao Feiyan and Zhao Hede. He at once became infatuated with them and had the sisters brought back to his palace where he made them concubines.

Feiyan and Hede soon became Chengdi’s favourites, and he became less and less interested in Empress Xu and Consort Ban.

In 18 BCE the Zhou sisters accused both the empress and Consort Ban of witchcraft.

The empress was deposed from court and placed under house arrest, but Consort Ban took a stand. She made a speech before the emperor to plead her case, using citations from her studies of Confucius. The speech so impressed Chengdi that he permitted her to stay at court.

Not happy to remain in the palace which had now been taken over by the sisters who persecuted her, Consort Ban chose to become lady in waiting to the Empress Dowager instead. Another story tells of Consort Ban saving her brother Ban Zhi, father of the Chinese historian Ban Biao, from a charge of treason.

Two well-known Chinese poems are credited to Consort Ban and she was included in Liu Xiang’s Biography of Exemplary Women.


References:

Women Writers of Traditional China: An Anthology of Poetry and Criticism – Kang-i Sun Chang, Haun Saussy, Charles Yim-tze Kwong

Autumn in the Han PalaceMa Zhiyuan

On Wikipedia:


Image credits:

Consort Ban and Emperor Cheng, Northern Wei painted screen” by Michael Sullivan’s The Arts of China (1999).

Licensed under Public Domain via Commons